Introduction

The modules in this tutorial serve as a primer for using library resources here at CUA. Each module focuses on a particular step of research, including choosing and narrowing a topic, determining a research strategy, determining where to search, locating resources, and using knowledge ethically.

While it is best to complete the modules in order, it is not essential. If you would like to return to an earlier module, use the menu at the top of the page. When navigating within the modules, use the navigation controls provided at he bottom of the screen. Do not use the "back" button in your browser.

Adapted from Bowman Library Research Skills Tutorial, Menlo College.

Introduction

For the most interactive experience, the tutorial is best viewed on a laptop or desktop computer using Chrome, Safari or Firefox browsers, but it can be viewed on mobile devices. Functionality is limited in Internet Explorer.

In this module, you'll be introduced to types of information sources, both popular and scholarly.

You’ll also learn about the information process.

Research starts with a question

For each project, ask yourself:

  • What do I want to know?
  • What is the information I need to find to answer my question?

Types of projects

Some of your assignments at CUA might include:

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  1. Writing a persuasive essay on the importance of community service
  2. Finding scholarly articles for a TRS paper
  3. Preparing a class presentation about an ancient civilization
  4. Investigating a controversial issue for a debate
  5. Preparing an annotated bibliography

Types of information sources

In order to determine which sources are most authoritative and will best meet your needs for a particular project, you have to understand something about the types of information sources that exist.

Types of information sources

  • Some sources you'll use for your assignments might include:
    • data and statistics
    • magazine, newspaper, and journal articles
    • books
  • You'll use information sources in print and online formats.

Types of information sources

  • You'll use both popular and scholarly sources, depending on the project.
    • Popular sources are written for a general audience. Scholarly sources are written for an academic audience. You'll hear about these sources in more detail later.
    • Each type of information source is the product of a process involving varying amounts of research, writing, and review.
    • Let's take a closer look, beginning with data and statistics.

Data and statistics

  • Data interpretation and analysis lead to the creation of information and knowledge.
  • Data collection can take minutes (such as weather data) or years (such as census data).
  • Data are multidisciplinary; the same set of data can be used by researchers in many different fields.
  • Data can be in either numeric or non-numeric form. For example, statistics about traffic patterns are numeric data, while videos of runners at the finish line of a race are non-numeric data.
  • Knowing how to find and make use of data will be a valuable skill long after you graduate.

Popular sources

Here, the word "popular" is used to describe something that is intended for use by the general public.

Popular information sources:

  • May be online, in print, or both.
  • Include some books, as well as magazines, newspapers, blogs, web sites, product catalogs and reviews, and company annual reports.
  • Are published on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis and can take anywhere from a day (newspapers) to months (in-depth magazine articles) to produce.
  • Are written by paid journalists or authors who may not have scholarly expertise.
  • May report on current trends and events as well as research from scholarly sources.
  • Often do not include bibliographies or lists of sources.
  • May be reviewed by editors or may be self-published.
  • Are selected by librarians for the Library's collection based on subjects that students and faculty research here at CUA.

Scholarly/academic sources

  • Scholarly sources are also called academic, peer-reviewed, or refereed sources.
  • Scholarly sources can take months or years to produce and publish because of the research and review process that goes into creating them.
  • Let's take a look at this research and review process.

The scholarly research and review process

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  1. Researchers identify a question or topic in need of further investigation.
  2. Researchers conduct research or experiments, then write about their findings.
  3. Researchers submit the article to a peer-reviewed journal or, if it's a book, to an academic press or publisher.
  4. The article or book is reviewed by other experts (the researchers' peers) in the same field as the researcher.
  5. Peer-reviewers may suggest or require changes, or they may reject the work entirely.
  6. Researchers make changes based on the reviewers' comments.
  7. The article or book is published in print and/or digital formats.
  8. Librarians review, select, and subscribe to books, print journals, and online databases containing these scholarly works to support courses and research at CUA. Access is provided through the Library's web site.

Textbooks and reference works

  • Compile and synthesize the most important information about a subject from other scholarly sources
  • Provide an overview of essential knowledge on a subject
  • May be general (World Encyclopedia) or subject specific (Dictionary of Psychology)
Textbooks and reference works
  • Are an excellent place to begin
  • Are not intended to be read cover to cover
  • Provide background, main concepts, and organization of a topic
  • Provide the important vocabulary and terms you'll use when you begin to search for more information
  • Can be in print or online

Wikipedia: Is it scholarly?

Wikipedia
  • You're familiar with Wikipedia, but it is not an academic source.
  • Entries in Wikipedia are created by many contributors, many of whom are not experts.
  • Information in Wikipedia is sometimes inaccurate or incomplete.
  • But before disregarding Wikipedia, consider how it can be useful:
    • Offers an overview of an unfamiliar topic
    • Provides useful keywords or search terms
    • Might include a bibliography with sources that you can use to find more information

Scholarly vs. popular sources

Click or tap questions to reveal the answers.

Scholarly Resources: What's the difference
Question Scholarly Popular
What's in them? Articles presenting original research related to a specific disciplineAmerican Journal of Psychology© University of Illinois Press Articles about current events and popular culture, opinion pieces, fiction, self-help tipsPsychology Today©Sussex Publishers
Who writes them? Professors, researchers, or professionals; credentials are usually stated in articlePopular Culture©Blackwell Publishing Staff writers or free-lancers; names or credentials often not statedRolling Stone©Rolling Stone LLC
Who reads them? Scholars (professors, researchers, students) knowledgeable about a specific disciplineHarvard Business Review©Harvard Business Review General publicBusiness Week©McGraw-Hill
What do they look like? Mostly text supported by black and white figures, graphs, tables, or charts; few advertisementsThe LancetReprinted from The Lancet V364(9440), © 2004 with permission from Elsevier. Glossy, color photographs, easy-to-read layout, plenty of advertisingHealth©Health Magazine
What are their advantages?
  • Articles are usually critically evaluated by experts (peer-reviewed) before they can be published
  • Footnotes or bibliographies support research and point to further research on a topic
  • Authors describe methodology and supply data used to support research results
  • Written for non-specialists
  • Timely coverage of popular topics and current events
  • Provide broad overview of topics
  • Good source for topics related to popular culture
What are their disadvantages?
  • Articles often use technical jargon and can be difficult for non-specialists to read
  • Scholarly journals are expensive and may not be as readily available
  • Research and review process take time; not as useful for current events or popular culture
  • Articles are selected by editors who may know very little about a topic
  • Authors usually do not cite sources
  • Published to make a profit; the line between informing and selling may be blurred

Adapted from Tutorial for Info Power (TIP), University of Wyoming, available at http://tip.uwyo.edu/categories.html

Overview of the information process

Although the various types of information sources are different in several ways, they also have something in common: the use of data. Data are the building blocks of information and include much more than numbers. Data include facts, events, and items of information presented in visible form.

Show me: (click or tap to reveal)

Source Type Source Visualization
Popular popular sources: blogs, catalogs, news articles, etc.
Scholarly scholarly sources: journals, textbooks, data sets, etc.
Scholarly & Popular all sources in a data flower diagram
  • Popular sources (yellow petals): Researchers and writers of popular sources such as news articles, blogs, and books often include data, facts, and details of events in their work.
  • Scholarly sources (green petals): Just as data form the basis for popular information sources, data play an even larger role in scholarly work. Scholarly information sources include things like journal articles, scholarly books, data sets, dissertations, textbooks, and reference works.
  • Scholarly & popular sources: We've talked about the research process from data to published work. But where do YOU fit in?

Where YOU fit in the process

  • Understanding the differences between information types will help you decide which sources to use for your projects.
  • This knowledge will also help you decide where to search.

Recap of what you've learned

Now that you've completed this module, you should be able to:

  • Recognize the central role of data in the information process
  • Identify characteristics of popular and scholarly information sources
  • Understand the scholarly research and review process

In Module 1 you learned about types of information sources; now it's time to start using some of them.

In this module, you'll learn how to search library resources effectively.

How to begin a successful search

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  1. Carefully read your assignment and be sure you understand it
  2. Identify the key words or concepts
  3. Find synonyms for the main terms
  4. Document your search by keeping a list of all search terms

Finding search terms

Not every author uses the same terms when writing about the same ideas. Using synonyms or related words in your searching will help you find more relevant results.

Try it: Imagine you are writing a paper about green products and the consumers who buy them. Choose three alternative search terms for each main idea. Remember that there may be other good search terms that we haven't listed here.

Green Products

Consumer Characteristics

Brainstorm a concept map

  • Sometimes a visual or concept map can also help you brainstorm search terms.
  • Additionally, it might help you develop an outline for your project.

Here's a sample concept map for a psychology project on the psychological causes and effects of bullying among adolescents.

Once you've considered the search terms you'll use, you're ready to try them out in a search. But where will you start?

Web searching

Your first stop might be Google, and you might have some success there, but remember…

The web is not organized, filtered, or reviewed. / The most useful results may not appear at the top of the Google results list. / The sources you find may not be authoritative, since anyone can post a web page.

You'll get millions of results to sort through, many of which will not be helpful.

Going beyond Google

Google sometimes is the fastest, easiest way to locate the information you need - think about movie listings or sports scores - but it might not meet your needs for academic projects.

easy doesn't equal scholarly
  • There are ways you can use Google successfully in your academic work, such as Google Scholar, and we'll discuss that in the next module.
  • But if not Google, where should you start your search?

Finding library resources

The place to start your research is the University Libraries' homepage, libraries.cua.edu. You'll find a robust collection of online and print resources that have been selected by the library staff to support your courses and assignments.

Remember, our resources are provided through licensed subscriptions, so you won't find them through a simple Google search. You must come to the libraries' website.

SearchBox

SearchBox is a one-stop method for searching the libraries' entire holdings. The tabs marked Articles and Books automatically limit your search to those formats (a Books search will include e-Books).

SearchBox

searchbox results

Search results can be narrowed down using several limiters located on the left side of any SearchBox results page. Limiting categories include content type, library location, author, subject terms, date of publication, language, and more. You can also ask SearchBox to show you only scholarly, peer-reviewed content (written and reviewed by experts on the topic) and/or items that are available in full-text.

Each item in the list of results will include basic identifying information, such as title, author, date, and content type. SearchBox will also show you in what locations the item is available and whether or not it is currently checked out. For items that are checked out, a due date will be given.

Recap of what you've learned

Now that you've completed this module, you should be able to:

  • Design a search based on the requirements of your project
  • Identify relevant search terms
  • Find materials using SearchBox

In the previous module on searching, we discussed using SearchBox when you need books.

In this module, we'll talk about the times when you'll need articles from periodicals (magazines, journals, newspapers). That's when you'll want to turn to the library's databases.

What is a database?

  • You'll hear the word "database" a lot when using library resources, so let's be sure you know what they are.
  • Databases are searchable collections of information. You already use them when you search for songs in iTunes, for friends in Facebook, and for books in Amazon.
  • Most databases rely on similar methods of searching, so while the databases themselves may look different, once you have mastered one, it's much easier to learn how to search others.

Library databases

What you'll find in the library databases:

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  1. magazinesJournal, magazine, and newspaper articles, both current and past
  2. encyclopedia articlesArticles from encyclopedias and other reference works, both scholarly and popular
  3. country databaseCountry demographics
  4. company databaseCompany reports
  5. financial pagesFinancial/stock data

Library databases

On the library's web site, you can easily navigate our databases by searching or browsing. To make browsing easier, we have grouped them by discpline, though a complete alphabetical listing is also available.

Try it!

Individual library databases might focus on only one subject, such as psychology or business, or might contain articles from many disciplines. Choose the best database from the pull-down menus for each topic listed below.

Advanced search techniques

  • Scholarly databases like the ones the library subscribes to are more complicated to use than search engines like Google and Yahoo because they offer sophisticated tools and techniques for searching that can improve your results.
  • Like SearchBox, many databases offer tools to help you narrow or expand your search. Take advantage of these.
  • The most common tools are:
    • Boolean searching
    • Truncation

Boolean searching

Boolean searching allows you to use AND, OR, and NOT to combine your search terms. Click each example to see how to limit or expand your search results.

Boolean search results
Search Type Results
Boolean Used

Search Terms

Boolean searching uses AND, OR, and NOT when combining your search terms. Click each example to see how to limit or expand your search results.
AND

"Endangered Species" AND "Global Warming"

When you combine search terms with AND, you'll get results in which BOTH terms are present. Using AND limits the number of results because all search terms must appear in your results. animation of AND search

"Endangered Species" AND "Global Warming"

OR

"Arizona Prisons" OR "Rhode Island Prisons"

When you use OR, you'll get results with EITHER search term. Using OR increases the number of results because either search term can appear in your results. animation of OR search

"Arizona Prisons" OR "Rhode Island Prisons"

OR

"Corn Ethanol" OR "Corn Fuel"

When using OR to join terms, note that there could be some results in which both terms appear. animation of OR search

"Corn Ethanol" OR "Corn Fuel"

NOT

"Miami Dolphins" NOT "Football"

When you use NOT, you'll get results that exclude a search term. Using NOT limits the number of results. animation of NOT search

"Miami Dolphins" NOT "Football"

Adapted from University of California Libraries Begin Research Tutorial

Truncation

  • Truncation allows you to search different forms of the same word at the same time.
  • Use the root of a word and add an asterisk (*) as a substitute for the word's ending. Show me.
    1. psychology
    2. psychological
    3. psychologist
    4. psychosis
    5. psychoanalyst
    Psycho*
  • Truncation can save time and increase your search to include related words.
  • In some databases, a question mark (?) can also be used to truncate a word.
  • Now let's take a look at these tools in action.

Adapted from University of California Libraries Begin Research Tutorial

Searching an article database

Many of our most popular article databases are provided through EBSCOhost. This short video will show you how to perform a basic search in EBSCOhost. Other database hosts will have similar layouts and functions. If you need help using a database, contact your embedded librarian or stop by the Information Desk in Mullen Library.

Google Scholar

Google Scholar screenshot

In the last module, we promised to show you how you can use Google for academic research. We recommend that you use Google Scholar. Google Scholar can link to CUA's holdings--click here for more.

Google Scholar uses much the same interface as Google but includes journal articles, books, and reports from academic publishers, professional societies, online repositories, and universities - exactly the kinds of scholarly sources your professors will often want you to use.

Google Scholar

While you won't always find full text in Google Scholar, you can find the citation of an article. The citation gives you the title, author, journal title, date, and page numbers.

Google Scholar results page

You'll notice in the image above that no full text is available for the third article. But you can click the link and find the citation of the article, which is shown below.

article citation

Finding full text using 360 Find it

Sometimes, you may only be able to find a citation for an article, but this is not a dead end. Click on 360 Find it to quickly search all of our print and online holdings. If we do not have the article in our collection, you will have the option to request the article through interlibrary loan. These articles are delivered electronically (PDF) through My Library Account.

360 Find It

Journal Title Search

If you want to browse a particular journal title, you may use the Journal Title Search tool, located on the homepage below SearchBox for Articles. This tool will indicate if a journal is available in print or online as well as which volumes are available.

Journal Title Search Results

Using databases after college

You'll continue to use databases after you leave CUA. Becoming an expert at using them now will give you a leg up later on.

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  1. Your job or company may subscribe to them - perhaps LexisNexis in the legal field, Hoover's or Mergent for business.
  2. Every public library will have a selection of databases for you to use.
  3. You'll use publicly available databases, such as yahoofinance.com, census.gov, webmd.com, espn.com.

Where YOU fit in the process

Even though information sources are readily available online, it still takes time to find, evaluate, and read the right sources for your projects. Following the suggestions below will help you succeed.

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  1. Read carefully
  2. Find new search terms as you explore a topic more thoroughly
  3. Take notes as you read
  4. Write down your search terms in a notebook
  5. Document all your sources as you read so you don't have to find them all over again when it's time to put together your bibliography

Recap of what you've learned

Now that you've completed this module, you should be able to:

  • Identify the kinds of information contained in library databases
  • Use the databases to find articles
  • Use techniques for advanced searching, such as Boolean searching and truncation
  • Find an article from its citation
  • Order a publication through interlibrary loan

Now that you know something about the types of information sources and where to find them, we need to talk about how to use them effectively.

This module will teach you some skills for deciding whether a particular information source is right for your project.

CRAAP test: Questions to ask

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  1. CIs it CURRENT? When was it published or posted? Does the date influence its usefulness?
  2. RIs it RELEVANT? Does it relate to your topic or answer your question? Is the language level appropriate (e.g., not too technical)?
  3. AIs it AUTHORITATIVE? Who is the author, publisher, or sponsor? What are the author's credentials?
  4. AIs it ACCURATE? Do the authors offer evidence to support claims they make? Has the information been peer-reviewed?
  5. PWhat is its PURPOSE? Does it inform, sell, entertain, or persuade? Is it objective? Is it fact, opinion, or propaganda?

CRAAP acronym & concept adapted from CSU Chico, Meriam Library

If your information source does not meet these criteria, it might be CRAAP! In that case, you may want to find another source.

Using format to evaluate a source

Another way to evaluate a source is to look at its layout or format.

Features such as tables of contents can help you determine quickly whether a source might be appropriate for your topic.

article citation

Sections of a scholarly article

Click or tap on a section to learn more about it.

Sections of a Scholarly Article
Section Purpose
Title Titles of scholarly articles are usually longer than those in popular journals. They use clear, specific language to let you know exactly what the article is about. Scholarly articles often have subtitles to give even more clarity.
Author(s) and Affiliation The author(s) of a scholarly article are listed along with their institutional affiliation. A title may also be given (Associate Professor, Division Chair, etc.). If a short biography is not included, you at least have enough information to check their credentials on the web.
Abstract An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the article. You may use an abstract to determine if the article is relevant to your topic without having to read the entire article first.
Introduction and Background This section states the reason for the research and provides some background about the issue being studied, including a review of the existing research.
Methodology This describes how the research was conducted, including how data was collected and analyzed.
Results Here, the author states the findings of his or her research. Graphs and tables may be used to present quantitative data.
Discussion In the discussion, the author analyzes the results and draws conclusions. This is the meat of the article, for this is where the scholar is contributing new knowledge to the area of study.
References This is a bibliographical listing of all the sources of information the author cited in the paper. The reference list is an extremely valuable tool when you need to look for more sources relevant to the topic. When evaluating an article, look to see that the references are robust and drawn from a variety of sources.

Using format to evaluate a source

Title page

Some of the criteria you use to scan an article can also help you evaluate books. Let's begin with the title and title page. A book's full title appears on the title page.

title page

Note that the full title of the book pictured here is The Great American Stickup: How Reagan Republicans and Clinton Democrats Enriched Wall Street While Mugging Main Street

Verso page

The back side of the title page is called the verso page. The verso page contains:

  • the copyright date, or publishing date
  • the publisher name
  • the location of the publisher
verso page

Table of contents

contents

The table of contents at the front of the book will give you a good idea of what the book covers and how it is organized.

Often the Introduction section will explain the contents in more detail and include historical background on the topic.

Index and bibliography

index and biblio

At the back of the book, the index helps you find specific names or topics in the book that may not be listed in the table of contents.

The bibliography contains references, or citations, to the sources of information that the authors used, so that readers can find the sources themselves.

Try it!

index and biblio

(Hint: There are two correct answers.)

Evaluating numeric and statistical data

data chart

When using numeric and statistical data, it is important to evaluate the source of the data. In this case, the source is the U.S. Census Bureau.

The publisher, sponsor, or presenter of the data may be different from who compiled the data. The name of the publisher or sponsor can help you evaluate possible bias or conflict of interest.

Try it!

For your social science class, you are comparing spending on education between Korea and the U.S. Examine the data below.

chart for exercise

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Factbook 2011: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics. Education at a Glance, OECD Publishing. © OECD 2011. http://www.oecd.org/edu/eag2011

Evaluation steps

Before you read...

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  1. Look at the section headings of an article, chapter, or web site. Notice how it's organized. This will help you understand the content.
  2. Make sure you understand the language level of the source. An article using language that is too technical may not help you, even if it is about your topic.

As you read...

  1. Write down the ideas, facts, and statistics that are important to your topic or argument. Keep track of the page numbers or section where you found your information.
  2. Write down as much citation information as possible. Writing things like the author's name, the title, the date, and exact web address will save you time and trouble later.

Take your research to the next level

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  1. Use a variety of sources.
  2. Seek information that a skeptical reader will find convincing.
  3. Be objective and seek unbiased sources. Be able to distance yourself from your topic.
  4. Seek information on all sides of an issue to support your argument. Don't ignore conflicting information ... acknowledge and respond to it.
  5. When appropriate, consider using statistical data to strengthen your argument.

Recap of what you've learned

Now that you've completed this module, you should be able to:

  • Use the CRAAP criteria to evaluate a source
  • Identify the parts of a journal article
  • Use the format (table of contents, sections) of a source to evaluate it
  • Scan headings before you read
  • Take detailed notes while you read
  • Research objectively, and seek information on all sides of an issue

Using sources effectively includes using them ethically.

This module will teach you how to correctly credit the sources you use, and how to identify the main elements of citations from different sources.

Citing information sources

You'll need to cite the sources you've used in your projects. Here's an example of citations in the text of a paper.

In text citations highlighted in excerpt: (Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991, p. 51) / (1984, p. 27) / (Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991; Tinto, 1993)

Excerpt from: Comeaux, E., & Harrison, C. (2007). Faculty and male student athletes: racial differences in the environmental predictors of academic achievement. Race, Ethnicity & Education, 10(2), 199-214.

Why cite your sources?

  • Lets others know where you found your information.
  • Shows the validity/acceptability of your sources.
  • Proves you've done the work required of your project.
  • Gives credit to the author of an idea.
  • Helps you use information ethically and legally.
  • Helps you find your own sources later on when it's time to create a bibliography.

Quote or paraphrase?

We've talked about why to cite, so what about how to cite?

Quote

  • When you use the exact words of someone else.

Paraphrase

  • When you state someone else's idea in your own words.

Whether you quote or paraphrase, you must cite the source or else it is considered plagiarism.

Ideas that are common knowledge do not have to be cited. For example:

  • Google is a popular search engine.
  • The Olympic Games are held every four years.
  • Windows is one of the most common operating systems for personal computers.

Try it!

Read the article segment below and test your knowledge of quoting and paraphrasing.

"Finally, the records and statistics of any person testing positive for a banned substance should no longer be recognized as valid by the MLB. Assuming an athlete cares more about the mark he or she leaves on the sport than the money earned, nothing is more important than the statistical records one leaves behind. Imagine the deterrent effect on an athlete if abuse of performance-enhancing drugs led to the elimination of every statistic or record compiled by the player throughout a career. If nothing else, it would ensure that those who achieved greatness through hard work and perseverance are the ones that are recognized as great players."

Excerpt from Tynes, J. R. (2006). Performance enhancing substances: Effects, regulations, and the pervasive efforts to control doping in major league baseball. Journal of Legal Medicine, 27, 493-509.

Which is it? A quote or a paraphrase?

Citation styles: A comparison

Different citation styles are used in different areas of study. The style you use depends on the instructions from your professor, your boss, or the journal to which you are submitting for publication.

Two of the major styles are APA (American Psychological Association) and MLA (Modern Language Association). Take a look at these examples.

APA Style

Tynes, J. R. (2006). Performance enhancing substances: Effects, regulations, and the pervasive efforts to control doping in major league baseball. Journal of Legal Medicine, 27(4), 493-509. doi:10.1080/01947640601021113

  • Uses author's initials instead of first name
  • Capitalizes only the first word in title and subtitle
  • Does not include name of database
  • Includes digital object identifier (DOI) when available

MLA Style

Tynes, Jarred R. "Performance Enhancing Substances: Effects, Regulations, and the Pervasive Efforts to Control Doping in Major League Baseball." Journal of Legal Medicine 27.4 (2006): 493-509. Academic Search Premier. Web. 13 May 2012.

  • Uses first name of author, not initials
  • Capitalizes all major words in the title and subtitle
  • Includes name of the database
  • Indicates whether you used a print or web version
  • Includes date of access

Citing in-text and in your bibliography

You will be citing sources in the body of your paper or presentation and at the end in a list of references, also called a bibliography or a list of works cited.

In-text example (MLA format)

Tynes argues persuasively that "the records and statistics of any person testing positive for a banned substance should no longer be recognized as valid by the MLB" (Tynes 508).

Bibliography example (MLA format)

Tynes, Jarred R. "Performance Enhancing Substances: Effects, Regulations, and the Pervasive Efforts to Control Doping in Major League Baseball." Journal of Legal Medicine 27.4 (2006): 493-509. Academic Search Premier. Web. 13 May 2012.

Citation tools on the library web site

There are a variety of tools available to make it easier to manage your citations. Here are a few:

  • RefWorks - a powerful online research management, writing and collaboration tool designed to help researchers at all levels easily gather, organize, store and share all types of information and to instantly generate citations and bibliographies.
  • Flow - is a new way to collect, manage, and organize research papers and documents. You can read, annotate, organize, and cite your research as well as collaborate with friends and colleagues by sharing collections.
  • EndNote - reference management software that collects, stores and organizes references for books, journal articles, and images that you’ve collected. EndNote helps you import references from databases, library catalogs, and websites into a document as you write it and then format your paper according to thousands of styles, including Turabian, MLA, APA, and Chicago Manual of Style.

All these tools are accessible from the libraries website under Guides, Tutorials, and Tools.

Where YOU fit in the process

  • You've explored, evaluated, and cited your sources.
  • Now it's time to put it all together and present your findings in a report, a presentation, or a paper.

Recap of what you've learned

Now that you've completed this module, you should be able to:

  • Understand why you should document your sources
  • Understand the difference between quoting and paraphrasing
  • Understand the basic elements of a citation
  • See differences between citation styles

Congratulations! You've finished Library 101! You may now close this window.

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