The Archivist’s Nook: Virtual Historians All

A favorite from the Fenians: A Chromolithograph of Theobald Wolfe Tone, the eighteenth century Irish revolutionary many Fenians looked to for inspiration.

All you need is a computer–heck, all you need is a smartphone to do historical research these days.  Three years ago, my colleague John Shepherd described our efforts in boutique digitization, which offered digital researchers several carefully selected sets of digital materials for use online.  Since then, we have undertaken many more large-scale digitization projects for your historical edification.  

As of March 2018, the Archives hosts 42 collections online amounting to hundreds of thousands of pages of materials.  I should note at the outset that the word “collection” is used deliberately here. A “collection” is a set of digital objects put on the web without any kind of accompanying interpretive information. This is in contrast with our online digital “exhibits” and digital “educational resources,” but these are distinguished from collections, as they are interpretively selected and posted with particular audiences in mind (say, high school students and teachers).

In sum, our digital collections are put online with only basic identification information (archivists call this metadata; at its sparest this means the date, collection, creator and search tags are posted with the object).  Contrary to what many people believe today, we cannot digitize everything in our archive—it would take years to digitize the millions of objects in our collections and frankly, we don’t have the staff time or the server space for such a project!  This means that we must make decisions on what we decide to digitize. Key factors in our decision to digitize collection materials include fragility, demand, and historical import.

Treasure Chest of Fun and Fact cover, November, 1970. The comic book’s covers changed somewhat across the years.  This cover may or may not reflect the psychedelic era in which it was produced.

Fragility was a key factor in one of our first digitization projects, that of the Fenian Brotherhood.  Established in Ireland in 1858 as the Irish Republican Brotherhood, their American branch was known by 1859 as the ‘Fenians,’ with the avowed purpose of overthrowing British rule in Ireland and establishing an Irish Republic. The Fenians in the United States grew to include over 50,000 members and hundreds of thousands of sympathizers by the end of the Civil War.  However, rocked by internal factionalism and opposed by the formidable military power of the British Empire, they never came close to achieving their aims. We chose to digitize this collection in 2003 due in part to its fragility. It is well-used and much of the paper in collection is thin and extremely fragile. Hence, digitizing the Fenian Brotherhood collection is partly a preservation measure—the fewer hands that touch the actual materials, the longer it will last.  The online collection is still widely used and freely available to anyone with an internet connection; it is our third most used digital collection.

You may be wondering, hmmm, if that fancy set of papers is number three, what is the Archives’ most popular digital collection?  Well, that would be The Treasure Chest of Fun and Fact, of course. Treasure Chest was an American Catholic comic book published from 1946 through 1972, available exclusively in Catholic schools throughout the United States.  We digitized the Treasure Chest back in 2004 because we suspected that a Catholic comic book would be appealing to many audiences, though it too has its fragile aspects, comic books tend to have thin pages that tear easily, so that was also a factor.  Treasure Chest has consistently been a chart topper as far as online use.  

A typical reaction upon hearing what the Catholic University Archives makes available online (Catholic University Public Affairs photo collection).

As noted, we have many digital collections available for public use online.  These collections were digitized and made available for free through the joint efforts of the Archives and the Washington Research Libraries Consortium.  Using another model, the Archives teamed up with the ProQuest History Vault to digitize several collections related to U.S. labor history, an area where our materials are particularly strong. ProQuest curates an archive of billions of vetted, indexed documents connected through a variety of research communities. Debuting in 2011, the ProQuest History Vault is constantly adding new primary sources related to widely studied topics in American history. A particular strength is social movements, especially racial justice, women’s rights, and organized labor.  The collections, with enhanced search features, can be purchased as a perpetual archive or as a subscription, providing research access for students and faculty to materials held at geographically dispersed archives. The Terence Powderly, John W. Hayes, and John Mitchell papers are part of the module, ‘Labor Unions in the U.S., 1862-1974: Knights of Labor, AFL, CIO, and AFL-CIO,’ which include collections from the University of Maryland and the Wisconsin Historical Society as well as the Catholic University Archives.

Plan on Managing Your Data

A data management plan (DMP) is a document that outlines what you will do with your data during and after a research project. Having a DMP is essential for today’s researchers in managing their data, applying for grants, and preserving the data for subsequent use by other researchers.  One useful tool that has been around since 2011 and continues to expand and improve is the DMPTool. The DMPTool is a free, open source tool to help researchers create and management their data management plans.

“The tool has four main functions:

1. To help create and maintain different versions of Data Management Plans;
2. To provide useful guidance on data management issues and how to meet research funders’ requirements;
3. To export attractive and useful plans in a variety of formats;
4. To allow collaborative work when creating Data Management Plans.”

A revamped version of the DMPTool launched February 27th that brought together the US based DMPTool and the UK version DMPonline into one international platform.

DMPTool has a number of excellent features to simply the data management process:

Understanding the types of data, file formats, how to organize files, metadata documentation, persistent identifiers, security and storage, sharing and archiving, citing data, and copyright and privacy are all issues that the researcher needs to consider in devleoping a DMP.

For those of you who would like an overview of the new features, the following webinar will be held on Tuesday, March 13th at 12:00 pm ET: Data Management Plans 2.0: Helping You Manage Your Data presented by Stephanie Simms from the California Digital Library and DMPTool.

Can’t make it? This webinar will be recorded. Update (03/14/18): the recording can be found here: https://www.dataone.org/previous-webinars

If you have any questions about data management planning, please contact Kevin Gunn, Coordinator of Digital Scholarship at gunn@cua.edu or 202-319-5504.

Fair Use Week 2018

This week is Fair Use/Fair Dealing Week (February 26th – March 2nd).  The organizers of the event state that “Fair Use Week is an annual celebration of the important doctrines of fair use and fair dealing.The week is designed to highlight and promote opportunities presented by fair use and fair dealing, to celebrate successful stories, and to explain these doctrines.”

Fair Use/Fair Dealing acknowledges the important doctrines of fair use in the United States that govern publication and scholarship.  While works of creation are copyrighted by their creators/owners, this right is not absolute. Fair use and fair dealing outline limitations and exceptions to copyright. Copyrighted material can be used without permission from the copyright holder assuming certain conditions are met. The flexibility in fair use doctrine allows for individuals/groups to exercise their freedom of speech and expression in creating and transforming works.  

Students, faculty, staff, and librarians should be aware of the concept of fair use and its many applications to creativity. The Office of General Counsel at CUA has a copyright page with FAQs, resources, forms, and checklists.

 

The Fair Use Fundamentals

Recognizing that copyright is not absolute, fair use constitutes balancing your proposed needs of someone else’s work with the copyright owner’s rights.

Whether fair use is applicable in your case will depend on a number of questions, some of which are: what exactly are you using? Are you transforming the work? How widely are you sharing the materials? Will the work be just at the university or somewhere else?

Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act (Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use) provides four factors in determining fair use as you balance your needs with that of the copyright holder.

Factor 1: Purpose and Character of the Use

If you are part of a non-profit institution, you have greater leeway than a for-profit business. Taking into account the nature of the work–criticism, commentary, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research and its transformative value will impact fair use applicability. For example, quotes put into a scholarly paper have a transformative quality and thus, constitute fair use.

Factor 2: Nature of Copyrighted Work

What is the nature or character of the work being used? Given the type of work, copyright holders have the right to ‘first publication’ and the courts would not side with fair use if, for example, a manuscript was unpublished. Courts distinguish between fiction and non-fiction works and they will generally side with fair use for non-fiction. That is, courts are more inclined to protect works of art, film, fiction, etc. from fair use provisions.

Factor 3: Amount and Substantiality of Portion Used

This important factor is usually what students and faculty have in mind when first considering fair use. For example, how much of a book can I copy and put in Blackboard, is a common question. Generally speaking, the more content of a work you use, the less fair use protection you have. The nautre and size of the work will also determine the plausibility of fair use.  Using an entire photograph for a project would be an infringement but using a thumbnail of the image would be fair use.

Factor 4: Effect on the Market for Original Work

The point of having copyright is to ensure that the creator is able to make a profit off of the work. How one determines the effect on market value is to ask whether one could realistically purchase or license the copyrighted work. If something is readily available, then this will go against fair use.  If your work is non-commercial, then the effect on the market would be difficult to prove. A work that is commercial in nature will have a more diffcult case in proving the fair use exemption.

 

The Process of Fair Use

If someone is sued over infringement of fair use, the judge(s) will go through these factors to determine if there is sufficient cause. The legal case of President Gerald Ford and his memoir is a classic example of copyright infringement. The Nation magazine copied a pivotal part of Ford’s memoir and published it, citing fair use. The case went to the Supreme Court which eventually ruled in President Ford’s favor. You can read the history of the case and the judges’ process of thinking through the four factors at the Trademark & Copyright Law blog.

 

Useful Resources

Fair Use/Fair Dealing Week as an infographic that explains what fair use is, why it is important, who uses fair use, and provides some examples of fair use.

The Library of Congress has a great post on knowing when to use a copyrighted work.

The U.S. Copyright Office has an index that follows judicial decisions on fair use.

Obtaining permission to use a copyrighted work can be a fraught affair. The Library of Congress has provided a handout to address some concerns.

The Scholarly Communications & Copyright Office at the Penn State Libraries has a checklist balancing the pros and cons of fair use.

The Copyright Advisory Services at the Columbia University Libraries has a roadmap for determining fair use of a work.

 

 

Resilience and Engagement in an Era of Uncertainty

The Coalition of Networked Information (CNI) held its biannual meeting in Washington, DC December 11-12, 2017. Clifford Lynch, Executive Director of CNI, gave his speech on the topic “Resilience and Engagement in an Era of Uncertainty.”  Lynch outlined a number of challenges that are facing digital scholarship.

  • The data refuge movement continues as librarians and scholars preserve data that is being pulled from web sites.
  • Some research funders are not supporting infrastructure to manage research data. Research funds and universities need to work together.
  • A very unstable world in politics and funding. Federal government is an unreliable steward (there are exceptions). Lynch states that “Memory and science are becoming increasing politicized in various ways.” The need to minimize single points of failure.
  • The end of network neutrality will happen (the speech was given before the decision was made by the FCC). What is our next step and will this make it harder for academic institutions?
  • An overall distrust of education, journalism, etc. makes it harder for us to do our work. It will get worse before it gets better. Also, how do we preserve this environment for later study?
  • Words are the dominate paradigm but this is rapidly being replaced with audio and video technological advancements. For example, machine learning algorithms can be used to compile audio and video of a celebrity to fabricate having him say things he never did. Authenticity becomes important.
  • Generative adversarial networks. Take two machine learning systems–one that recognizes fake images and the other that purposely create fake images–and have them talk to each other. Each system learns from the other and improves their own system. This appears to be a type of arms race.
  • Trails of provenance will become hugely important. Authenticity will be important and will have to founded on provenance and the infrastructure to capture it.
  • Open Access is not only important for scholarship but to society as well. Public libraries and other institutions are dependent on OA for maintaining a free society.
  • Replicable and reproducible research are important yet it does not make sense to expect that ALL research be reproducible. Some exploratory research is designed for experimentation and for uncover new ideas rather than for reproduction. Some research is based on interpretation and thus, cannot be reproduced.
  • We need outreach by scholars, scientists, and educators to defend scholarly communication on the public stage.

Lynch talked at length about open access. We need to recalibrate and reaffirm our commitments to open access. Decision points in the future: funding, policy matters, clarity by institutions about what they want, and storage of cultural evidence (from a non-academic environment) that is becoming the object of study by scholars. We will need to sort out how much we trust the cloud and cloud computing. Institutions need to re-examine our cloud strategy. We do not want all of our valuable material under one umbrella and this needs to be communicated to IT folks by librarians and archivists.

Last, Lynch talked about the technological uncertainties we face. Can we move from protoypes to social adoptions, specifically the issue of annotation? Hypothes.is is an example of annotation.  Questions: Who gets to annotate, who gets to see them, where are they stored, who is going to run the annotation server, and are the authors comfortable with being annotated?

Another issue is the notion of containers for preserving and sharing software: standard configurations, versioning, and proliferations of software are concerns moving forward.

Three developments in media that are growing and influencing academia:

  • The lifecycle of the capture to reproduction of 3D objects has happened. This will impact hugely on education as students will prefer to touch something rather than look at an image in a book.
  • Libraries of 3D objects need to be created for storage and retrieval while standards for this lifecycle and documenting provenance for authenticity, will need to be established.
  • Augmented reality beyond the academy in annotating places and architecture and annotating expereinces WHILE you are having the experience will be a future challenge. How do you store, preserve, retrieve, etc. all of this?

Other issues that are unclear and are still forming. For example, while there are prototypes and projects for linked data and cultural data, there are still problems of scalablity that need to be addressed. Quantum computing (which will invalidate authentification systems) and block chaining (how does it apply to educational institutions?) were briefly mentioned as topics of emerging concern.

Lynch ended his talk by mentioning effective collaborations based on shared values as becoming increasingly important to maximizing resources.

 

Many of the presentations were recorded and they can be found on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/cnivideo/videos .

Conference link: https://www.cni.org/events/membership-meetings/past-meetings/fall-2017

Institutionalizing Digital Scholarship at CUA

As the CUA Libraries continues expanding the digital scholarship opportunities for the CUA community, it may serve us to see what others have done. No better example can be found of the trials and tribulations of creating and supporting digital scholarship than the founding of the Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University.

Dr. Dan Cohen, the former director of the RRCHNM, gave the plenary address to the CNI-ARL Digital Scholarship Planning meeting at Brown University, November 8-10, 2017. Dan is the Vice Provost for Information Collaboration, Dean of Libraries, and Professor of History at Northeastern University in Boston, MA. He talked about the issue of institutionalizing digital scholarship. Establishing a digital scholarship center is challenging as he regaled the audience with tales from the establishment of the RRCHNM that was established at George Mason University Roy Rosenzweig in 1994 (cue the raccoons with fleas at 15:25 in the video below).

Cohen outlined three major themes that digital scholars and librarians will need to develop to be successful in insitutionalizing digital scholarship, what he calls “the three critical elements of institutionalization:

Routinizing

Working on individual projects is fine as librarians, and consulting with faculty and students in getting set up basic digital humanities projects goes with the territory. However, every librarian will tell you that such endeavors are time consuming and in the end, individually unsustainable. What is needed is a routinization of workflows, policies, and procedures with dedicated individuals expanding their knowledge of the larger process.

Normalizing

As Dr. Cohen mentions, new activities cannot remain on the fringe. “You have to make it normal that people on your campus do digital scholarship,” says Cohen. They need to be incorporated into your instiution’s workflow; in short, to be normalized into the everyday tasks of your organization. Outreach and developing allies who understand what you are doing and want to be part of digital scholarship. The long term goal is to have members of your institution think of the library when they think of digital scholarship practices.  In the end, this becomes a marketing exercise.

Depersonalization

Great ideas come from individuals (for the most part). These founders create new products and services. However, founders move on (or die) and many DS labs, centers, and organizations flounder and fall once the founder is gone. The digital scholarship paradigm within the academic instiution must not only survive but flourish when staff turnover takes place.  Every person involved in DS should make it a priority of how their projects and workflow will succeed them when they leave.

Lessons learned: Be careful not to spread yourself too thin. The nature of your institution will determine what you are able (and should offer) in the way of promoting the mission of the university through consultations, creating exhibits, experiential learning, information literacy classes, coding services, etc. Focusing on matching with faculty scholarly interests will be vital for success.

The full presentation is on YouTube and a summary of the talk is available on his blog.

 

ICYMI: Webinar on Author Rights and Predatory Journals

As a graduate student or new faculty member seeking an academic position, acquiring tenure, or being promoted, you will need to establish a scholarly presence and build your curriculum vitae. A building block in this process is publishing in quality academic journals (subscription-based or open access). Once your article has been accepted (oh joy!) for publication, publishers will require that you sign an author’s agreement. Do you know what it is you are signing? Navigating the scholarly journal terrain can be daunting task in finding the right journals for your article, neogtiating your rights with the publisher, identifying (and avoiding!) predatory journals, and determining if an open access journal meets your needs. This webinar will offer a general overview of each topic with useful hints and suggestions on navigating this complicated process.

This webinar was originally held on October 25th, 2017. Here is the recording:

 

If you have any questions or would like a research consultation, please contact:

Kevin Gunn
Coordinator of Digital Scholarship
314B Mullen Library
gunn@cua.edu
202-319-5504

Open Access Week Events (October 23rd – 29th)

Open Access Week is October 23 – 29, 2017. Open Access “is the free, immediate, online availability of research articles coupled with the rights to use these articles fully in the digital environment. Open Access ensures that anyone can access and use these results—to turn ideas into industries and breakthroughs into better lives.” (SPARC*). As part of Open Access Week, CUA Libraries is offering a number of intiatives.

What is ORCID? As a faculty member or a graduate student, you should be establishing a scholarly presence and managing your scholarly reputation. Have you ever wondered:

  • if you have a common name or publish under various aliases (e.g. John Smith and J. Smith) whether you are getting credit for your research?
  • how to save time by integrating your manuscript and grant submission workflows (that is, by not having to enter your same information over and over again)?
  • how you can keep track of your scholarly output?

The solution is having a persistent digital identifier such an ORCID iD. Acquiring an ORCID account is necessary for professional advancement. In fact, many journals require that authors have ORCID accounts for manuscript submissions.  Watch this video for a quick overview.

What is ORCID? from ORCID on Vimeo.

ORCID stands for the Open Researcher and Contributor ID.  With an ORCID iD, you can integrate your research over various platforms such as Kudos, Mendeley, Scopus, Web of Science, and Humanities Commons. For example, ScienceOpen uses ORCID iD with “enabling verified users to integrate their published content, build collections, and perform post-publication peer review across publishers and journals for free.”

Furthermore, funding organizations like the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health: SciENcv: Science Experts Network Curriculum Vitae are requiring ORCID iD.

Publishers are collecting ORCID iDs during manuscript submission (e.g. Taylor and Francis), scholars are using it in Open Access platforms like PLOS (Public Library of Open Science), and even subscription databases like the Modern Language Association International Bibliography use ORCID iDs to distinguish scholars.

As part of Open Access Week (October 23-29th, 2017), CUA Libraries will have tables set up in various buildings on campus for students and faculty to sign up for an ORCID account.

  • MONDAY October 23rd
    Pangborn Portico
  • TUESDAY October 24th
    Hannan Foyer
  • WEDNESDAY October 25th
    Caldwell Lobby
  • THURSDAY October 26th
    McMahon Foyer
  • FRIDAY October 27th
    Mullen Library

 

All times are 11:00 AM – 1:00 PM. Drop by for 30 seconds and we will sign you up!

Your ORCID iD will belong to you throughout your scholarly career so acquire this unique identifier to showcase your research and ensure proper attribution of your work. If you cannot make the table sessions, follow these instructions in getting started:

1. Claim your free ORCID iD at http://orcid.org/register

2. Import your research outputs and add biographical information using our automated import wizards

3. Use your ORCID when you apply for grants, submit publications, or share your CV. Learn more at http://orcid.org

 

Need help or have questions? Please contact Kevin Gunn, Coordinator of Digital Scholarship (gunn@cua.edu).


As a graduate student or new faculty member seeking an academic position, acquiring tenure, or being promoted, you will need to establish a scholarly presence and build your curriculum vitae. A building block in this process is publishing in quality academic journals (subscription-based or open access). Once your article has been accepted (oh joy!) for publication, publishers will require that you sign an author’s agreement. Do you know what it is you are signing? Navigating the scholarly journal terrain can be daunting task in finding the right journals for your article, neogtiating your rights with the publisher, identifying (and avoiding!) predatory journals, and determining if an open access journal meets your needs. This webinar will offer a general overview of each topic with useful hints and suggestions on navigating this complicated process.

author rights addendum

When: Wednesday, October 25th, 2:00 PM – 3:00 PM EST

Where: Online (https://global.gotomeeting.com/join/110395189)

Presenter: Kevin Gunn, Coordinator of Digital Scholarship, The Catholic University of America Libraries

Questions: Contact Kevin Gunn, 202-319-5504 or gunn@cua.edu

 

Connection details:

Please join the meeting from your computer, tablet or smartphone. https://global.gotomeeting.com/join/110395189

You can also dial in using your phone. United States: +1 (872) 240-3212

Access Code: 110-395-189

First GoToMeeting? Try a test session: http://link.gotomeeting.com/email-welcome

Attendance is limited to 26 people.

 

Webinar: Know your rights! Navigating authors’ rights, predatory journals, and open access journals

As a graduate student or new faculty member seeking an academic position, acquiring tenure, or being promoted, you will need to establish a scholarly presence and build your curriculum vitae. A building block in this process is publishing in quality academic journals (subscription-based or open access). Once your article has been accepted (oh joy!) for publication, publishers will require that you sign an author’s agreement. Do you know what it is you are signing? Navigating the scholarly journal terrain can be daunting task in finding the right journals for your article, neogtiating your rights with the publisher, identifying (and avoiding!) predatory journals, and determining if an open access journal meets your needs. This webinar will offer a general overview of each topic with useful hints and suggestions on navigating this complicated process.

author rights addendum

When: Wednesday, October 25th, 2:00 PM – 3:00 PM EST

Where: Online (https://global.gotomeeting.com/join/110395189)

Presenter: Kevin Gunn, Coordinator of Digital Scholarship, The Catholic University of America Libraries

Questions: Contact Kevin Gunn, 202-319-5504 or gunn@cua.edu

 

Connection details:

Please join the meeting from your computer, tablet or smartphone. https://global.gotomeeting.com/join/110395189

You can also dial in using your phone. United States: +1 (872) 240-3212

Access Code: 110-395-189

First GoToMeeting? Try a test session: http://link.gotomeeting.com/email-welcome

Attendance is limited to 26 people.

Open Access Week Events: What is ORCID?

Open Access Week is October 23 – 29, 2017. Open Access “is the free, immediate, online availability of research articles coupled with the rights to use these articles fully in the digital environment. Open Access ensures that anyone can access and use these results—to turn ideas into industries and breakthroughs into better lives.” (SPARC*). As part of Open Access Week, CUA Libraries is offering a number of intiatives.

What is ORCID? As a faculty member or a graduate student, you should be establishing a scholarly presence and managing your scholarly reputation. Have you ever wondered:

  • if you have a common name or publish under various aliases (e.g. John Smith and J. Smith) whether you are getting credit for your research?
  • how to save time by integrating your manuscript and grant submission workflows (that is, by not having to enter your same information over and over again)?
  • how you can keep track of your scholarly output?

The solution is having a persistent digital identifier such an ORCID iD. Acquiring an ORCID account is necessary for professional advancement. In fact, many journals require that authors have ORCID accounts for manuscript submissions.  Watch this video for a quick overview.

What is ORCID? from ORCID on Vimeo.

ORCID stands for the Open Researcher and Contributor ID.  With an ORCID iD, you can integrate your research over various platforms such as Kudos, Mendeley, Scopus, Web of Science, and Humanities Commons. For example, ScienceOpen uses ORCID iD with “enabling verified users to integrate their published content, build collections, and perform post-publication peer review across publishers and journals for free.”

Furthermore, funding organizations like the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health: SciENcv: Science Experts Network Curriculum Vitae are requiring ORCID iD.

Publishers are collecting ORCID iDs during manuscript submission (e.g. Taylor and Francis), scholars are using it in Open Access platforms like PLOS (Public Library of Open Science), and even subscription databases like the Modern Language Association International Bibliography use ORCID iDs to distinguish scholars.

As part of Open Access Week (October 23-29th, 2017), CUA Libraries will have tables set up in various buildings on campus for students and faculty to sign up for an ORCID account.

  • MONDAY October 23rd
    Pangborn Portico
  • TUESDAY October 24th
    Hannan Foyer
  • WEDNESDAY October 25th
    Caldwell Lobby
  • THURSDAY October 26th
    McMahon Foyer
  • FRIDAY October 27th
    Mullen Library

 

All times are 11:00 AM – 1:00 PM. Drop by for 30 seconds and we will sign you up!

Your ORCID iD will belong to you throughout your scholarly career so acquire this unique identifier to showcase your research and ensure proper attribution of your work. If you cannot make the table sessions, follow these instructions in getting started:

1. Claim your free ORCID iD at http://orcid.org/register

2. Import your research outputs and add biographical information using our automated import wizards

3. Use your ORCID when you apply for grants, submit publications, or share your CV. Learn more at http://orcid.org

 

Need help or have questions? Please contact Kevin Gunn, Coordinator of Digital Scholarship (gunn@cua.edu).

Digital Scholarship: Created at CUA

Where do you preserve your digital scholarship? If you publish in journals, you may be using ResearchGate or Academia.Edu to share your publications. Is this a long-term solution? Maybe not. Are you working on a conference paper or poster? Save them at your institution’s open access repository.

From A social networking site is not an open access repository by the University of California Office of Scholarly Communication:

Open access repositories are usually managed by universities, government agencies, or nonprofit associations. Affiliation with a larger institution (with a public service mission) means that repositories are likely to be around for a long time.

ResearchGate and Academia.edu are commercial sites, whereas most open access repositories are non-profits.

Untitled

You have open access options that are long-term. Take some time to look at The Catholic University of America’s Open Access Repository – Digital Collections . Look to the most recently published dissertations highlighted on the front page; or search the Institutional Repository link for the dissertations by school.