Open Access Week is October 24 – 30, 2022. Open Access “is the free, immediate, online availability of research articles coupled with the rights to use these articles fully in the digital environment. Open Access ensures that anyone can access and use these results—to turn ideas into industries and breakthroughs into better lives.” (SPARC*).
What is ORCID?
As a faculty member or a graduate student, you should be establishing a scholarly presence and managing your scholarly reputation. ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) is a nonprofit organization that provides a standardized way to uniquely identify researchers. ORCID provides a way to identify researchers and their work, no matter when and where it was published. The system is designed to be useful for both researchers and readers. Researchers can use ORCID to claim their work, build their profile, and receive recognition for their work. Readers can use ORCID to find more accurate and reliable citations, discover new research, and explore the work of a researcher. Specifically, ORCID is a persistent digital identifier (PID) unique to you.
**Need help setting up your ORCID account? Contact Kevin Gunn, Coordinator of Digital Scholarship, to arrange a consultation.
New Features in ORCID
This new tool allows for the affiliation manager to add affiliation data to a researcher’s ORCID record by simply uploading a CSV file. Further, the affiliation manager can discover the ORCID iDs of their researchers, as well as adding and maintaining organization affiliation data to their researchers’ records. This can save researchers time and helps other systems such as grant management systems, manuscript submission systems, and university research information systems to accurately track the affiliations. Talk to Kevin Gunn, Coordinator of Digital Scholarship, for details.
44 Work Types and Growing
The type of work is central to the ORCID experience. Researchers can now add 44 work types to the registry, including CRediT (Contributor Roles Taxonomy) alongside existing contributor roles, and Data Management Plans (DMP).
Research Organization Registry (ROR)
The evolution of the PID ecosystem over the past decade has been facilitated by organization IDs. The Research Organization Registry (ROR) has been a critical component of this development by supplying organization ID metadata. ORCID has integrated this metadata into its system and now supports ROR’s Organization IDs. RORs can now be used with the API and the Affiliation Manager to easily track the impact of institutional research.
Catholic University and ORCID
Here is a screenshot of our member portal (click on the image to enlarge) with the number of affiliates over time:
Get an ORCID
Your ORCID ID will follow you throughout your scholarly career so acquire this unique identifier to showcase your research and ensure proper attribution of your work:
The theme for this year’s International Open Access Week (October 24-30) is, “Open for Climate Justice.” The theme: “seeks to encourage connection and collaboration among the climate movement and the international open community. Sharing knowledge is a human right, and tackling the climate crisis requires the rapid exchange of knowledge across geographic, economic, and disciplinary boundaries.” Open Access Week was created by the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) for the academic and research community to “learn about the potential benefits of Open Access, to share what they’ve learned with colleagues, and to help inspire wider participation in helping to make Open Access a new norm in scholarship and research.”
What is Open Access?
Open Access refers to “the free, immediate, online availability of research articles coupled with the right to use these articles fully in the digital environment. Open Access ensures that anyone can access and use these results—to turn ideas into industries and breakthroughs into better lives.” (SPARC*). See this video for a fuller explanation:
Open For Climate Justice
The theme of Open for Climate Justice acknowledges that the impacts of the climate crisis are not borne “equally or fairly, between rich and poor, women and men, and older and younger generations” (United Nations, 2019). The focus is on climate justice as a human rights issue and not merely a scientific one: “[climate justice] insists on a shift from a discourse on greenhouse gases and melting ice caps into a civil rights movement with the people and communities most vulnerable to climate impacts at its heart,” said Mary Robinson, former President of Ireland. This power inequity can impact the ability of communities to produce, disseminate, and use knowledge. Having Open Access to create pathways to ensure equitable knowledge sharing is a step in addressing the power inequities that are part of climate change and how we can respond to them.
Making scientific knowledge available is an important goal of Open Access. On August 25th, The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) updated U.S. policy to make the results of taxpayer-supported research immediately available to the American public at no cost or embargo.
Why is OA important to CU Libraries? We believe that open access to good quality information is essential for a free and democratic society. The virtue of justice is central to this ethical problem.
Adopt an open textbook. Students need a break from high textbook prices. Learn how to adopt or adapt a textbook from the Open Textbook Library. The Washington Research Library Consortium (Catholic University Libraries is a member) has a series of webinars on how to get started. Adopt a textbook today!
SPARC has been at the forefront of Open Access since 1998. They are “a non-profit advocacy organization that supports systems for research and education that are open by default and equitable by design.” See the activities planned for Open Access Week 2022.
OASIS. Developed at SUNY Geneseo’s Milne Library, Openly Available Sources Integrated Search (OASIS) is a search tool for discovering open content. OASIS currently searches open content from 114 different sources and contains 440,269 records.
When Ukrainian journalist Iuliia Mendel got the call she had been hired to work for President Volodymyr Zelenskyy, she had no idea what was to come. Her time with the president is encapsulated in The Fight of Our Lives: My Time With Zelenskyy, Ukraine’s Battle for Democracy, and What It Means for the World. Zelenskyy is a lawyer, constitutional scholar, and entertainer who won his election, battled corruption, and united his country against Russian tyranny. Check out our other political and historical works in our Popular Reading collection. Titles range from commentary, fiction, historical fiction, mystery, suspense, non-fiction, current affairs, science, social issues, and politics.
William Bentley Ball (1916-1999), subject of a previous blog post and whose papers reside at Catholic University, was a Pennsylvania based constitutional lawyer and devout Roman Catholic, dubbed “God’s Litigator” and “Religious Freedom Fighter” by the Catholic Press (1). Ball argued nine cases and advised on more than two dozen others, primarily related to religious freedom and the First Amendment, before the Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS). Ball was also an artist, poet, and author.
As a young man, Ball was a devout Catholic, anti-New Deal activist, and U.S. naval officer in World War II. After the war, he studied law at the University of Notre Dame, taught at Villanova, and served as general counsel for the Pennsylvania Catholic Conference. His first case before SCOTUS was in 1967 when he entered a brief on behalf of U.S. Catholic bishops supporting the overturn of prohibits on interracial marriage in the celebrated Loving v. Virginia case. Ball achieved national attention with the 1972 Wisconsin v. Yoder case in which that state tried to force Amish children to attend high school when the latter’s belief system found that unnecessary. Ball represented the family in question, the Yoders, pro-bono, arguing before SCOTUS that this prevented defendants from performing their religious obligation, and the justices agreed 7-2.
Ball’s other most famous case was in 1993 with Zobrest v. Catalina Foothills School District in Arizona. James Zobrest (b. 1974) and his family were Pennsylvania transplants and Catholics who had moved to Arizona seeking the best possible education for the hearing impaired. Although many in the Deaf Community favor separate schooling, the Zobrests sought to mainstream their son, which required a daily on site sign language interpreter in the school to facilitate young James’ communication and learning. Public funding of these interpreters was not a problem so long as James attended public schools but when he transferred to a Catholic High School, Salpointe in Tuscon, said funding was denied by the Catalina Foothills School District, believing that it was a violation of the First Amendment’s establishment clause, which generally prohibits the government from establishing, advancing, or giving favor to any religion. Arguing this was religious discrimination, the Zobrest family went to court.
The federal district court in Arizona held that furnishing a sign-language interpreter violated the First Amendment the interpreter would via sign language promote James’ religious doctrine at government expense. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the lower court’s decision, stating that the interpreter would have been the instrumentality conveying the religious message with the local school board, in effect, sponsoring the religious school’s activities. The court admitted that denying the interpreter placed a burden on the parents’ right to free exercise of religion, but it was justified to ensure that the First Amendment was not violated. The Zobrests engaged the services of the progressive Arizona Center for Law in the Public Interest. Their lawyer, Thomas Berning, teamed up with the Conservative Catholic litigator, Ball, the latter working again on a pro bono basis, to take the case to SCOTUS. Incidentally, Ball’s daughter had been young Jim Zobrest’s first sign language interpreter before the family had left Pennsylvania. In their landmark case, Ball and Berning were supported by the Department of Justice on the basis of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), The Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights, the Latter-Day Saints (Mormons), Missouri Synod Lutherans, Southern Baptist Convention, National Council of Churches of Christ, and the National Association of Evangelicals. In opposition, were the ACLU, Americans United for Separation of Church and State, the American Jewish Committee, and the Anti-Defamation League (2).
On February 24, 1993, the case was held before the Supreme Court. Ball argued that the school district’s refusal was a violation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, as well as the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment. Chief Justice William Rehnquist authored the majority’s 5-4 opinion, ruling that the service of a sign-language interpreter in was part of a government program distributing benefits neutrally to disabled children under the IDEA regardless of whether the school was public, private, or religious. Rehnquist further held that the only economic benefit the religious school might have received would have been indirect and that aiding the student and his parents did not amount to a direct subsidy of the religious school because the student, not the school, was the primary beneficiary. The Supreme Court thus ruled that there was no violation of the establishment clause, and the decision of the Ninth Circuit was reversed. Zobrest vs. Catalinais a significant case because it marked a shift in the court toward interpreting the establishment clause to allow government-paid services for students who attend religiously affiliate nonpublic schools and was notably followed by Agostini v. Felton (1997), in which the court held that remedial services financed by federal funds under Title I could be provided in parochial schools.
Although Jim had graduated before the SCOTUS decision the family was nevertheless compensated for the thousands of dollars a year they had scraped together for his sign interpreters. For Ball, this was perhaps his finest victory in the twilight of his notable career. The definitive account of this notable piece of legal history is Bruce J. Dierenfield and David A. Gerber. Disability Rights and Religious Liberty in Education: The Story Behind Zobrest v. Catalina Foothills School District. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2020. Much of the source material is available in the aforementioned papers of William Bentley Ball at Catholic U. For access questions, please contact us at email@example.com.
(1) Bruce J. Dierenfield and David A. Gerber. Disability Rights and Religious Liberty in Education: The Story Behind Zobrest v. Catalina Foothills School District. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2020, p. 104.
On October 27, 1922, the first issue of the CatholicU student-run newspaper, The Tower, was published. A four-page issue, it introduced itself to the campus with a focus on local events and academic fare. Named after the turret-like tower of Gibbons Hall – the paper’s first editorial offices – it has continuously operated for the past century, documenting campus life, debates, and changes. In a new exhibit, Special Collections is highlighting some of the ways The Tower has documented the history and culture of Catholic University. This exhibit can be seen in person in Mullen Library during the fall semester 2022 and viewed online here.
With 100 years and 129 editors-in-chief (1), The Tower has gone through as many changes as the campus has experienced. It has altered its masthead dozens of times, changed its formatting and size, and even shifted to an online version in the past few years. But its dedication to documenting the thoughts and lives of Cardinals has remained unaltered.
Far be it from this humble archivist to pontificate on the merits of student journalism, but I feel qualified to discuss the important role that campus newspapers like The Tower play in preserving and telling the history of the University and its inhabitants.
The Tower remains one of the key resources for studying the history and culture of the Catholic University campus, particularly the undergraduate experience on campus. With most of the student population changing approximately every four years, it is often difficult to document the lives of the ever-changing residents on campus. Student organizations rise and fall, issues of concern are debated and settled, and students matriculate and soon graduate. While our staff works to archive as much as possible, we cannot capture the full range of the ever-evolving student experience.
Having a weekly newspaper, written and edited by undergraduate students, is thus a rich source of information related to the culture of the campus. It provides ample documentation and reporting on social events, campus gossip, ongoing debates (both on- and off-campus), moments of change, and numerous stories that may otherwise be lost to history.
Our reference staff frequently uses the bound Tower collection and digitized collection to address inquiries about campus history, and we have even found amazing photos for social media or to share photos and stories with alumni.
June 19th, 2022 marked the fiftieth anniversary of the first Encuentro and, as it’s currently Hispanic heritage month, we’d like to take a moment to reflect on one of the events that have held an important part in shaping the modern Catholic Hispanic and Latino communities.
The word encuentro means ‘meeting’ in Spanish, but the Encuentros that have taken place periodically in the last fifty years have been far more than just a simple meeting. Leaders of the First Encuentro interpreted the word to mean a ‘coming together’ and this is exactly what they hoped to do for Hispanic and Latino Catholics. Initiated in part as a response to Vatican II reforms by a community that felt they were not being heard, the Encuentros were meant to provide a way to amplify the many voices, by combining them into one.
The First Encuentro (or Prima Encuentro) was held at Trinity college in 1972. Its results were encouraging. The Ad Hoc Committee charged with accessing the Encuentro document approved (at least conditionally) 50 of the 74 recommendations, with all the social concerns being accepted. According to Luis A. Tampe, “The First Encuentro viewed the Church as a work in progress and envisioned the Holy Spirit as guiding the Hispanic faithful so that the First Encuentro could be considered an expression of the sensus fidelium Hispanorum (the sense of the Hispanic faithful) and their reading of and responding to the signs of the times.”
The Second Encuentro, which took place in 1977, built upon many of the themes and resolutions of the First Encuentro, while also looking for ways in which to improve and grow its vision. Some notable additions to the Second Encuentro were the creation of a Youth Panel, to address concerns of the younger generation falling out of the faith, and discussions over how to ameliorate the plight of migrant workers, who were given little to no protection from U.S. law.
The Second Encuentro has been criticized by some as being somewhat chaotic and disorganized. However Pablo Sedillo, the head of the Secretariat of the Spanish Speaking of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, pushes back on this claim, saying of the disarray caused by so many unregistered people deciding to attend, “ I don’t attribute that to a lack of organization. I attribute that to just a community that was absolutely hungry to participate and tell [Church leaders] in a public forum how they felt about the Church. I really don’t see anything wrong with that.” Even disorganized as it was, the Second Encuentro provided an opportunity for Hispanic Catholics to have their voices heard by the Catholic Church.
In 1985, after many months of pre-planning, the Third Encuentro took place at Catholic University. Its focus was on growing inclusion, which sparked some fairly controversial debates. There were even discussions on whether or not women ought to be ordained. Excitement for the event sparked many other activities around which people could celebrate their faith, such as a pilgrimage to Guadalupe, which took place in 1984. Additionally, several smaller meetings were held after the Encuentro to insure that goals were being met and themes stayed relevant.
Continuing the prior themes of growing inclusion, the fourth Encuentro (or ‘Encuentro 2000’ as it was referred to due to its falling around the millennium) was designed as a means of increasing solidarity amongst other minority groups within the Catholic Church. Encuentro 2000 was as much a celebration of culture as it was a call to action.
The Encuentros are still happening; the last one was as recent as 2018. For many, they represent a unified effort for Hispanic and Latino Catholics to come together and make their voices heard. They brought out leaders in the community, and gave the people a sense of empowerment. They are a testament to a community committed to their culture and their faith, and to making sure others are admitted to it as well.
Have you ever thought about who programmed the first modern computer? Kathy Kleiman would like to introduce us to the six women who programmed the ENIAC, the first modern computer, at the end of World War II, in her book, Proving Ground: The Untold Story of the Six Women Who Programmed the World’s First Modern Computer. Check out our other scientific works in our Popular Reading collection. Titles range from commentary, fiction, historical fiction, mystery, suspense, non-fiction, current affairs, science, social issues, and politics. Happy Autumn!
Provost Aaron Dominguez is pleased to announce that Livia Lopes, JD has been appointed the new Director of the Oliveira Lima Library of The Catholic University of America beginning July 1st, 2022. On August 1st, Livia’s appointment as the Director of the Institute for Latin American and Iberian Studies (ILAIS) also began. She will serve in these positions concurrently.
Livia Lopes graduated from the Rio de Janeiro State University’s Law School (Brazil) with J.D. and M.A. (summa cum laude) degrees. She also attended the University of Coimbra (Portugal) and the University of Salamanca (Spain) as a visiting student with academic distinction; the Ohio State University (USA), and Georgetown University (USA) as a visiting researcher. Before joining Catholic University, Livia served as an Assistant Director and Visiting Scholar at the George Washington University Elliott School of International Affairs, affiliated with the Brazil/Latin American Program. She came to Catholic University in 2020 to lead the Latin American and Iberian Initiatives in the Office of Global Strategies. OGS advances academic programs, projects, and partnerships related to Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula. Livia Lopes is a Brasilianista, a researcher on Latin American and Brazilian studies, with concentrations in law, politics and public policy.
Faculty are invited to join the Washington Research Library Consortium Textbook Affordability Working Group on Wednesday, September 28th for a brief introduction to open textbooks and a panel discussion featuring faculty members who teach with them. Attendees will have the opportunity to earn a $200 stipend by posting a review of an open textbook!
October 13th, 2022 11:00 AM Faculty Perspectives: You’ve Already Done This!: Creating and Publishing OER Courseware November 2nd, 2022 12:00 PM Faculty Perspectives: Use Only What you Want: Adapting and Remixing OER November 16th, 2022 12:00 PM Faculty Perspectives: Choosing a Creative Commons License for your OER: Where to Begin? December 6th, 2022 12:00 PM Save the Date!
Ever wonder what happened before the Big Bang? Laura Mersini-Houghton, an expert on the multiverse and the origins of the universe offers a new account of the events before the Big Bang in Before the Big Bang: The Origin of the Universe and What Lies Beyond. Check out our other scientific works in our Popular Reading collection. Titles range from commentary, fiction, historical fiction, mystery, suspense, non-fiction, current affairs, science, social issues, and politics.